calculator 1.3 [adding factorial]

Bjarne Stroustrup “Programming Principles and Practice Using C++”
Chapter 6 Exercise 3
Using std_lib_facilities.h by Bjarne Stroustrup.

[code language=”cpp”]
// Philipp Siedler
// Bjarne Stroustrup’s PP
// Chapter 6 Exercise 3

#include "std_lib_facilities.h" //ERROR: "#include "../std_lib_facilities.h", instead #include "std_lib_facilities.h"

//——————————————————————————

class Token { //ERROR 1/5: "lass Token{", missing c for class
public:
char kind; // what kind of token
double value; // for numbers: a value
Token(char ch) // make a Token from a char
:kind(ch), value(0) { }
Token(char ch, double val) // make a Token from a char and a double
:kind(ch), value(val) { }
};

//——————————————————————————

class Token_stream {
public:
Token_stream(); // make a Token_stream that reads from cin
Token get(); // get a Token (get() is defined elsewhere)
void putback(Token t); // put a Token back
private:
bool full; // is there a Token in the buffer?
Token buffer; // here is where we keep a Token put back using putback()
};

//——————————————————————————

// The constructor just sets full to indicate that the buffer is empty:
Token_stream::Token_stream()
:full(false), buffer(0) // no Token in buffer
{
}

//——————————————————————————

// The putback() member function puts its argument back into the Token_stream’s buffer:
void Token_stream::putback(Token t)
{
if (full) error("putback() into a full buffer");
buffer = t; // copy t to buffer
full = true; // buffer is now full
}

//——————————————————————————

Token Token_stream::get() //ERROR 2/5: "Token get()", instead Token Token_stream::get()
{
if (full) { // do we already have a Token ready?
// remove token from buffer
full = false;
return buffer;
}

char ch;
cin >> ch; // note that >> skips whitespace (space, newline, tab, etc.)

switch (ch) {
case ‘=’: // for "print"
case ‘x’: // for "quit"
case ‘(‘: case ‘)’: case ‘{‘: case ‘}’: case ‘+’: case ‘-‘: case ‘*’: case ‘/’: case ‘!’:
return Token(ch); // let each character represent itself
case ‘.’:
case ‘0’: case ‘1’: case ‘2’: case ‘3’: case ‘4’:
case ‘5’: case ‘6’: case ‘7’: case ‘8’: case ‘9’: //ERROR 1/3: "case’8′:", missing
{
cin.putback(ch); // put digit back into the input stream
double val;
cin >> val; // read a floating-point number
return Token(‘8’, val); // let ‘8’ represent "a number"
}
default:
error("Bad token");
}
}

//——————————————————————————

Token_stream ts; // provides get() and putback()

//——————————————————————————

double expression(); // declaration so that primary() can call expression()

//——————————————————————————

// deal with numbers and parentheses
double primary()
{
Token t = ts.get();
switch (t.kind) {

case ‘(‘: // handle ‘(‘ expression ‘)’
{
double d = expression();
t = ts.get();
if (t.kind != ‘)’) error("’)’ expected )"); //ERROR 3/5: "if (t.kind != ‘)’) error("’)’ expected)", missing );
return d;
}

case ‘{‘: // handle ‘(‘ expression ‘)’
{
double d = expression();
t = ts.get();
if (t.kind != ‘}’) error("’}’ expected }"); //ERROR 3/5: "if (t.kind != ‘)’) error("’)’ expected)", missing );
return d;
}

case ‘8’: // we use ‘8’ to represent a number
return t.value; // return the number’s value

default:
error("primary expected");
}
}

//——————————————————————————

// deal with !
double factorial()
{
double left = primary();
Token t = ts.get(); // get the next token from token stream

while (true) {
switch (t.kind) {
case ‘!’:
{
int leftVal = left;
for (int i = 1; i < leftVal; i++) {
left *= i;
}
t = ts.get();
break;
}
default:
ts.putback(t); // put t back into the token stream
return left;
}
}
}

//——————————————————————————

// deal with *, /, and %
double term()
{
double left = factorial();
Token t = ts.get(); // get the next token from token stream

while (true) {
switch (t.kind) {
case ‘*’:
{
left *= factorial();
t = ts.get();
break;
}
case ‘/’:
{
double d = factorial();
if (d == 0) error("divide by zero");
left /= d;
t = ts.get();
break;
}
default:
ts.putback(t); // put t back into the token stream
return left;
}
}
}

//——————————————————————————

// deal with + and –
double expression()
{
double left = term(); // read and evaluate a Term //ERROR 4/5: "double left = term(;" mssing )
Token t = ts.get(); // get the next token from token stream

while (true) {
switch (t.kind) {
case ‘+’:
left += term(); // evaluate Term and add
t = ts.get();
break; //ERROR 2/3: "break;", missing
case ‘-‘:
left -= term(); // evaluate Term and subtract //ERROR 3/3: "left += term();" plus instead of minus
t = ts.get();
break;
default:
ts.putback(t); // put t back into the token stream
return left; // finally: no more + or -: return the answer
}
}
}

//——————————————————————————

int main()
try
{
cout << "Welcome to our simple calculator.\n";
cout << "Please enter expressions using floating-point numbers.\n";
cout << "Currently available operators are: ‘(‘, ‘)’, ‘*’, ‘/’, ‘+’, ‘-‘ and ‘!’.\n";
cout << "Use ‘=’ to get result or ‘x’ to quit the program.\n";

double val = 0; //ERROR 5/5: val not initialized

while (cin) {
Token t = ts.get();

if (t.kind == ‘x’) break; // ‘x’ for quit
if (t.kind == ‘=’) // ‘;’ for "print now"
cout << "=" << val << ‘\n’;
else
ts.putback(t);
val = expression();
}
keep_window_open();
}
catch (exception& e) {
cerr << "error: " << e.what() << ‘\n’;
keep_window_open();
return 1;
}
catch (…) {
cerr << "Oops: unknown exception!\n";
keep_window_open();
return 2;
}

//——————————————————————————
[/code]

Output:
Welcome to our simple calculator.
Please enter expressions using floating-point numbers.
Currently available operators are: '(', ')', '*', '/', '+', '-' and '!'.
Use '=' to get result or 'x' to quit the program.
13!
=
=6.22702e+09

3 Comments

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  2. In line 135, you have “left *= i;”. What if left is a double for example “4.5”? Wouldn’t your factorial be 4.5*3*3*1?

  3. It’s a factorial operator, I think that might answer the question 🙂

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